BIO 101 Labs

 

BIO 101Overview of Laboratory Exercises:All labs may be found in full in Temple 209

 

Basic Lab Technique and Graphing and Graphing and Data Presentation:

BIO 101 Lab #1

Introduction:No matter what kind of project a scientist is working on, his/her work must be performed using sound laboratory practices and must eventually be presented to colleagues (or less educated readers) for review.Lab #1 is devoted to techniques used in experimentation and to presenting the data gathered in a reader friendly style.

 

Part 1:Basic Lab Practices and Techniques

††††††††††† Objective:To learn and practice sound laboratory techniques so that data collected will be of value.

Part 2:Basic Lab Techniques

††††††††††† Objective:To familiarize the student with lab equipment and techniques for measuring and data collection.

Part 3:Practice in weighing substances

Part 4:Data and Results Presentation

††††††††††† Objective:To explore ways in which data may be presented in a manner in which the reader may easily and accurately interpret that data.

 

The Scientific Method (revised 2003)

BIO 101 lab #2

The scientific method can be defined as a way of thinking and finding facts by using hypothesis and deductive reasoning.The scientific method is actually a number of steps commonly used in the search to deductive reasoning.The scientific method is actually a number of steps commonly used in the search to discover more about something.The steps include asking 1) making observations, 2) asking questions based on those observations, 3) developing hypothesis (es-plural) or proposing the answer to the question(s) asked, 4) testing the hypotheses by setting up an experiment, gathering data, and analysis of the data OR by making more detailed observations, 5) making a conclusion about the validity of the hypothesis(es) and 6) replicating the test to support or refute the hypotheses.This process may also be called HYPOTHETICAL-DEDUCTIVE THINKING.

 

Experimental Design

1.      Reproducibility

2.      Variables

a.      The independent variable (IV)

b.      The dependent variable (DV)

c.      Controlled variables

d.      The control treatment or group

e.      The experimental group

 

Presentation of Results

1.                  Tables

2.                  Graphs

3.                  Discussion of Results

 

Acids, Bases, Buffers, and pH

BIO 101 Lab #3

 

The chemical reactions which make life possible are influenced in many ways by acids, bases, buffers, and the pH of fluids inside and outside the cells.Understanding the way acids, bases, and buffers interact to change pH will enhance later understanding of specific cell processes.

 

Purpose:To study the effects of acids, bases, and buffers on the pH of solutions and practice several specific techniques of measurement and analysis of scientific data.

 

Identification of Biological Molecules

BIO 101 Lab #4

Introduction and Overall Purpose:Cells are living structures that are made of organic (carbon containing) molecules.These molecules can be classified as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins.Because each of these classes has distinct molecular structures with specific functional groups each class has unique chemical properties.

 

Part 1:Carbohydrates

††††††††††† Benedicts Test for Reducing Sugars

Part 2: Protein

Part 3: Fats

 

Diffusion and Osmosis

BIO 101 Lab #5

In order to maintain a steady state, a cell must regulate movement of materials across the cell membrane.The cytoplasm and the external environment of the cell are aqueous solutions composed of water (the solvent) and many dissolved organic and inorganic molecules (the solutes).The movement of water and the dissolved solutes across semipermeable membranes is the focus of this laboratory session.

 

The Light Microscope

BIO 101 Lab #6

Purpose:†† The student will become familiar and comfortable with the features, operation and car4e of the light microscope and appreciate its value in obtaining information.

Parts of the Light Microscope:

Part 1:Use of the Light Microscope

Part 2:Total Magnification

Part 3:Preparing a Wet Mount

Part 4:Depth of Focus

Part 5:Diameter of the Field of View

Part 6:Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

 

Cellular Morphology

BIO 101 Lab #7

Introduction:The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function of all living organisms.The metabolic processes that sustain life (nutrition, respiration, synthesis, excretion, reproduction, etc.) all have a cellular basis.All organisms, plant or animal, are composed of cells that have differentiated in order to carry out various functions for that organism.

 

On this lab exercise, by observing and sketching variety of cellular life forms, the student will become familiar with the structural differences and similarities of the cells provided.Producing even a primitive sketch with appropriate labeling is a valuable learning process.

 

Purpose:To become familiar with the structural differences and similarities of the cells provided and to appreciate the diversity of living organisms.The method of food collection and digestion, movement and reaction to environmental stimuli and reproduction should be considered for each organism studied.

 

Enzyme Catalysis

BIO 101 Lab #8

Overview and Purpose:

Cell metabolism depends on internal enzymatic reactions.Enzymes allow reactions to occur quickly and at relatively low temperatures.Because enzymes are not changed by the reaction, the enzymes can be recycled and reused over and over again.Todayís lab focuses on enzymes and how they facilitate chemical reactions.

 

Photosynthesis

BIO 101 Lab #9

Introduction:Photosynthesis is an energy transformation process in which light energy, in the presence of chlorophyll molecules, is transformed into chemical energy and packaged within carbohydrate end product molecules:

Part 1:The Effect of Light Wavelength on Photosynthesis

Part 2:Absorption Spectrum of Plant Pigments

Part 3:Leaf Anatomy

Part 4:Density of Stomates

 

Cell Respiration

BIO 101 Lab #10

Overview:Respiration refers to two different but related processes.Respiration is the active acquisition of oxygen by organism.Cellular respiration is the release of energy from organic compounds by metabolic chemical oxidation within each cell.

 

In this laboratory exercise, you will measure oxygen consumption during respiration as the change in gas volume in respirometers containing either germinating or nongerminating peas.In addition, you will measure the respiration of these peas at two different temperatures.

 

Fermentation

BIO 101 Lab #11

Introduction:There are some instances in an organismís life in which oxygen is in short supply.Fermentation is the exergonic (energy producing) process that cells may use to produce energy in the absence or low supply of oxygen.It is an incomplete process: it results in only the partial degradation of sugars to produce very little ATP.Therefore, the simpler the sugar to begin with the more efficient the process.

 

Mitotic Cell Division

BIO 101 Lab #12

Overview:Mitotic cell division involves two processes; mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division).During mitotic nuclear division, there is an exact replication of the chromosomes (long strand of DNA) and the genes, which they carry. As cytokinesis takes place each daughter cell then receives a group of chromosomes identical in kind and number to those present in the mother cell. Thus a cell with a haploid nucleus gives rise to two cells, each with haploid nucleus.A cell with a diploid nucleus gives rise to two cells each with a diploid nucleus.

Purpose:

1.      To become familiar with the stages and process of mitosis

2.      To recognize that while we are studying a plant cell, the process is similar in animals and other organisms whose cells undergo mitosis.

 

Mendelian Inheritance

Bio 101 Lab #12

Purpose:To study the various types of problems belonging to the Mendelian classification of genetics.Genetic terminology and definitions will be emphasized.The formation of gametes and offspring will be explained.Problem types will be explained and specific problems will be worked in class and for homework.Common ratio i.e., 1:2:1, 9:3:3:1, and 3:1 will be emphasized.

 

NonMendelian Inheritance

BIO 101 Lab #13

Purpose:To study the various types of problems belonging to the Non mendelian classification of genetics.Problem types will be explained and specific problems will be worked in class and for homework.For the purposes of this laboratory exercise, problems will involve the following types of inheritance:

Inheritance Type; Inter-mediate Inheritance/Incomplete Dominance; Multiple Allelic Inheritance; Sex-Linked Inheritance; Linkage

 

DNA:Replication, Transcription, Translation

BIO 101 Lab #14

The basic structure of DNA will be explored. Problems relating to replication, transcription and translation will be worked in class.